The pharmacological effects of Bacopa monniera are attributed to the presence of a number of biologically active compounds, including alkaloids, saponins and sterols. The compounds responsible for the memory enhancing effects of Bacopa monniera are triterpenoid saponins called "bacosides".

The chemical structures of some of these compounds are as follows:

 
 

BACOSIDE A (Levorotatory)
 

BACOSIDE B (Dextrorotatory)
 

(Triterpenoid saponin)                                                    (Bacogenin A4 )
 
 

Proximate composition of the leaves of Bacopa monniera:

 
 
   
 
  Chemical analysis of the leaves by standard methods gave the values indicated in Table 3.2:

Table 3.2: Proximate composition of the leaves of Bacopa monniera

 
     
 

Component

Analytical results

Moisture

88.4 g/100g

Protein

2.1 g/100g

Fat

0.6 g/100g

Carbohydrate

5.0 g/100g

Crude fiber

1.05 g/100g

Ash

1.9 g/100g

Calcium

202 mg/100g

Phosphorus

16 mg/100g

Iron

7.8 mg/100g

Ascorbic acid

63 mg/100g

Nicotinic acid

0.3 mg/100g

Energy

38 cal/100g

 
     
     
 

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